Category Archives: History

Basil Port of Call:Buffalo

IMG_9655
The Denis Sullivan where we got a cool Great Lakes Log Book showing lots of amazing history. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

By Jasmine Willis

BUFFALO — For a long time these vessels of the sea have been used to transport merchandise, conquer the wars, and provide safe travels abroad.

The Tall Ships of America Challenge came to the shores of Buffalo Waterfront on July Fourth Weekend. The Holiday weekend was packed with thousands of people wanting to get a glimpse of history and know what it was like to be on one of these magnificent ships.

IMG_9674
Historical photos inside the Denis Sullivan showed a real sense of what it was like below deck. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

My mother, Lisa Willis, and myself were lucky enough to become part of history. For the first time Buffalo held Basil Port of Call at its Canalside. There were 12 Tall Ships of America available (technically one was from Spain) and thousands of happy tourists.

An official passport was handed out to each ticket holder with a little information about each ship at port. My mother and I were there for opening day on July 5, and it was an intense adventure to say the least.

IMG_9677
The Pride of Baltimore II is an exact replica of the first Pride of Baltimore from War of 1812. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

We only saw half of the ships that day as it was beastly hot, but it is something we will never forget. The true meaning of all our family adventures is to take a lot of photos, explore a lot of hidden gems, and get to the point of total exhaustion. It is safe to say this adventure was a complete success.

The Tall Ships of America we saw are; Denis Sullivan, HMCS Oriole, NAO Santa Maria, Niagara, Pride of Baltimore II, and St. Lawrence II. The others at port were; Bluenose II, Empire Sandy, Picton Castle, Appledore IV, Appledore V, and Spirit of Buffalo.

IMG_9689
Many of the ships in port had cool old wooden steering like this. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

The Denis Sullivan is based out of Milwaukee, WI. It is one of the newer vessels on the list. It is a traditional Great Lakes topsail schooner, which was most common at one time. It is used for the general public and educational purposes as well as private charters. It offers programs on history, sailing, ecology, marine science, and professional development for educators.

IMG_9797
It was fascinating to be on the oldest Royal Canadian Navy ship. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

HMCS Oriole is the oldest commissioned ship in the Royal Canadian Navy, and the longest serving commissioned ship. It is based out of CFB, Halifax, Nova Scotia. She was built in 1921, but now serves as a training vessel for the Royal Canadian Navy.

IMG_9807
NAO Santa Maria had the longest wait line of the day. It was so beautiful. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

NAO Santa Maria is an exact replica of the flagship Christopher Columbus sailed in 1492. It is based out of Seville, Spain. This gorgeous masterpiece was built in only 14 months and takes you right back in time over 500 years ago. This deep-water tall ship was built on the 525thAnniversary of the original Santa Maria 1492 Voyage. She launched on March, 15, 2018 as part of the historic replica fleet of NAO Victoria Foundation in Seville.

IMG_9708
The Niagara had the most flags on the ship. It also had a lot of neat historic cannons and other war memorabilia to symbolize War of 1812. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

US Brig Niagara is based out of Erie, Pa. It is a reconstruction of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s historic wooden flagship that fought in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. This glorious reminder of our victory on the lake offers education and learning on the waters for the 22 trainees and 18 crew on board.

Pride of Baltimore II is a topsail schooner that serves as a sailing ambassador for the State of Maryland. It is based out of Baltimore, MD and supported by a non-for-profit organization. The Maryland Transportation Authority owns and supports the historic value of this vessel. This part of our seafaring history is a replica of the one that served in War of 1812. It launched in 1988 to replace the first Pride of Baltimore.

IMG_9694
Cannons were on both War of 1812 replicas to showcase what it would be like in those days. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

St. Lawrence II is a steel two-masted brigantine operated by teenagers for youth sailing programs. It is based out of Kingston, Ontario. She was one of three brigantines from the Canadian ports brought to Buffalo by the Buffalo Lighthouse Association in the 1980s.

IMG_9844
I imagine this is what it looked like on the original Santa Maria in 1492. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Perhaps, my favorite ship I was able to see that day was the NAO Santa Maria. I am completely fascinated by history, as anyone who knows me will find out. I feel like this one embraces the true meaning of Tall Ship. It is wooden, huge, and looks ancient. It makes me feel like I am entering a period film where a bunch of pirates are going to make someone walk a plank or keep them up in the crow’s nest. I was determined to see this ship even if it was the only one, I saw that day.

IMG_9822
Another glimpse into over 500 years of history on Santa Maria replica. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

It was my general feel of the public that they all felt the same way. I mean the other ships are beautiful, and I love them as well. However, the replica of Santa Maria is something that reminds us that there is still a little magic left in the world. I could feel the soul of the Christopher Columbus 1492 Voyage on that vessel as I wandered throughout its corridors.

Besides seeing the beautiful Tall Ships, which was the main focus of our adventure that day. We also were able to ride a double decker bus. I had 15 wonderful minutes to feel British. I even had The Beatles blasting through the radio as we drove through the harbor, and I sitting on the top could see the soul of the dark waters of Lake Erie.

IMG_9773
The Buffalo Double Decker gave me my dream of riding a real London bus for a few minutes. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Yes, despite major sunburn, possible dehydration, and extreme sun poisoning we both had a wonderful time at Basil Port of Call: Buffalo. It was the first time anything like this had been done in the shores near our humble homes. It is something we had dreamed of and thought never be possible in a million years. Just hope that next time they come to port we can see the other ships we missed that day on the rocky shores of Lake Erie.

IMG_9717
My mom Lisa Willis. It has been a huge dream of hers to see and aboard Tall Ships. I am glad the Basil Port of Call:Buffalo fulfilled that goal for her and myself. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

 

Adventures on Spook Hill

By Jasmine Willis

MIDDLESEX  — There is a legend of an old sacred Seneca burial ground that had been disturbed on Newell Road. It is from this legend that our story begins.

IMG_8549 2
Just two friends on a ghost adventure and personal quest for answers on Spook Hill. PHOTO BY JUDY SMITH-CRONK

 

Judy Smith-Cronk and I decided an adventure was in store for her birthday on June 21. The one place she always wanted to see since she was in her early 20s was Spook Hill. Thanks to GPS and our newfound Ghostbuster skills we were up for the challenge. The legend was that if you go to a certain spot on Spook Hill, the spirits of the burial ground will pull your vehicle in neutral up the hill. Now rather it is the spirits of angry Native Americans or a gravity shift under the pavement its certainty an intriguing sight.

 

Once we found the exact location with Spike Road on the left and a driveway on the right, we put the truck in neutral. Several times the truck was taken to the exact same spot towards a pole on the side of the hill. Judy filmed the fascinating occurrence more than once as the vehicle is pulled up the hill.

IMG_8468
This is the exact spot to look for in order to get the spooky reaction. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Afterwards, we were on a personal quest for anything to do with this legend. Some towns have a legend and lore marker about anything interesting that happened.

IMG_8466
This is the famous hill that has been alluring ghost adventurers for decades. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

However, in the small town of Middlesex we are not so lucky. The only thing we find that suggests anything to do with the legend is a marker about the Indian Burial grounds being disturbed in 1922.

IMG_8530
It made me sad to read this marker and know that this happened in 1922. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

We decided to shift our adventure to an historical one instead when we came to the tiny town of Vine Valley. There are several unique things to say about this community by the lake.

The first being, Vine Valley Methodist Church built in 1891. It has a plaque on the door saying it was put on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994. Across the way is a Veterans Memorial that honors all the branches of military. It was a nice way to honor all those who fought and died for our freedom from all the wars.

IMG_8474
The Vine Valley United Methodist Church in Vine Valley was built in 1891 in Queen Anne style. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

A man told us that Vine Valley had a lot more history for us to explore with the General Store down the road and the boat launch as well. Judy and I were up for more history since it was a beautiful day for a adventure.

IMG_8482
The Veterans Memorial stands as a reminder of all we lost for our freedom. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

The CAROBESON General Store was built by G.W. Green in 1890. It was owned and operated by Charles A. Robeson Family from 1898 to 1984. After that the town of Middlesex owned the store. Now it is back in the hands of the family.

 

The history of the store itself is that of the Pioneer Days we have come to know and love from our history books. Robeson had the basics in his store when it opened such as lumber, tools, fruit, vegetables, coffee, milk, cheese, fishing supplies, and books.

IMG_8497
This charming store takes you back to the old days as soon as you walk inside. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

When the early 1900s brought the booming business of vineyards and farms were in their prime the little store brought in tons of merchandise for farmers. The boats would come on the lake to pick up 30 to 40 tons of grapes from Vine Valley to take to Canandaigua.

 

Robeson had a barter system in his store for the poor farmers; fresh eggs, milk, potatoes, and home-made butter were given in exchange for sugar, molasses, tea, and coffee.

IMG_8526
Never seen 1800s coolers in stores before. This was my favorite thing about the store. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Robeson married Ellen Hixon, daughter of a Civil War Veteran Col. F.A. Hixon. Together with their family the Robeson clan made that little store by the lake thrive for 60 years. Walter and Caroline, Robeson’s children ran the store with their families after the parents couldn’t anymore.

 

The store was once used for Bible Studies, Square Dancing, Plays, Quilting Bees, and even town meetings. Town Supervisor Don Liddiard took over the store once the family could no longer keep it in 1984. This was the effort made to keep the store and public boat launch active. In 1991 Martin and Jessie Kane took over the store until 1997.

IMG_8527
I look at this and it reminds me of every period movie where the store owner has all sorts of goods behind a large wooden counter. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

The store was tossed from owner to owner after that; Barbara Jean and Mike Brignoli in 1997, Steve Ryan and family in 2001, and Don and Marcella Buckard art gallery and bookstore in 2006 until 2008.

 

The store was left abandoned after that until 2018 when Fred and Beth Armitage Muller came to town. This historic information was provided by Dan Robeson and Beth Muller to let people know the importance one store can be to a small town by the lake.

 

Middlesex Town Hall has a history room called Middlesex Heritage Group open Wednesday from 9 a.m. to noon.

 

The Vine Valley Boat Launch has some history of its own. Judy and I loved standing on the dock and taking in the beauty of the water and mountains in the distance. This was a fond memory of Judy’s childhood with her parents when they would come to the lake in the summers.

 

IMG_8509
The famous boat launch reminds me of my time in Cassadaga Lake. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Vine Valley has used this boat launch since 1883 as a public beach, steamship commercial port for grape growers, and a launch point for recreational boaters. Middlesex bought the property in 2008 in a way to maintain and preserve the area. This boat launch is only one of three public lake access points on Canandaigua Lake and the only one in Yates County. It is part of the  New York State Parks, Recreation, and Historical Preservation.

IMG_8508
The dock is a place that offers you some insight into the lake. We could stand there all day long. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Our final stop on the grand adventure is one that has always fascinated me. All my life I have been completely intrigued by one room school houses. Maybe since I grew up watching all the shows my mom loved; The Walton’s, Little House on the Prairie, and Anne of Green Gables. I just remember always wanting to see what it would be like to be in one of those super old buildings being taught by a sophisticated lady in pioneer clothes.

 

Much to my dismay most of these relics of the past have been burned down or turned into private homes. However, to my immense delight I happened upon one preserved in time on the hillside.

IMG_8534
The Overackers Corners School had its day from 1874 to 1938. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

The Overackers Corners School District No. 3 operated from 1874 to 1937 on the corner of North Vine Valley Road and State Route 364. It was built to be heated by one large stove, had no running water or electricity, and the students had to carry water up the hill from a local well. There was a large woodshed and two separate outhouses.

IMG_8541
Old fashioned outhouse that was used in the days before running water and plumbing. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Once the school closed its doors for good in 1938 it was sold to Leon Button who used the historic building for grain storage. In 1984 it went to the Middlesex Heritage Group. After two years of renovations in 1998 it was turned into a historic museum. The original bell, chalkboard, desks, and other artifacts are seen today. The school has been on the National Register of Historic Places since 1994.

IMG_8532
The sign marks the spot. The National Register of Historic Places holds the story of this school. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Some interesting facts provided about its rich history; the land for the school came from Edward Hennessy’s property and additional land was bought from Amos Hixson, it was designed to accommodate grades first to eight grade, bricks from a blacksmith shop were crumbled and used for the foundation, bricks for the walls came from the brick factory, it was named after the Overackers Family, it was sold to Leon Button for only $128.50., A photo of the school appeared in the 1933 edition of the National Geographic on page 560, and the building is on the NYS Path Through History Tour and Seneca Heritage Days.

 

Some of the teachers who taught at this school were Lillian Boyd, Gordon Foster, Nellie Bennett, Mrs. Stanley Voorhees, Ruth Halstead, Carrie Razey, Lela Robson, Nellie Button, Bertha Noble, Alice DeWick, Patrick Sheehan, Frank Matteson, and Hazel Robeson.

IMG_8547
The old sign that is nailed to a post shows what this school really was too so many. A cemetery down the road must hold its secrets. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

The school is open on special occasions or by appointment only. It can be reached by calling the Middlesex Heritage Group at 585-554-6945. The next open house is Oct. 12 and 13 from noon to 4 p.m. for NY Path Through History. The Middlesex Heritage Group is located at the corner of Main and Water streets in Middlesex. The CAROBESON General Store Is located at Vine Valley Beach in Vine Valley. They are open everyday 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. and can be reached at 585-554-7124. The Vine Valley United Methodist Church is located at 6370 Vine Valley Road in Middlesex. They have Sunday service at 9:30 a.m. and the store is right down the road.

IMG_8520
This twisted old tree looks as though it could tell a story of its own by the shores of Canandaguia Lake. PHOTO BY JASMINE WILLIS

Mills Mansion honors Glory Days

By Jasmine Willis

MOUNT MORRIS — The community gathered for its annual historic festival that honors the father of the national pledge.

The Eighth Annual Glory Days was held downtown on June 8 for the author of the Pledge of Allegiance, Francis Bellamy.

Meanwhile, the Mills Mansion was honoring the founder of Mount Morris, Gen. William A. Mills with some Civil War reenactors and a new exhibit.

IMG_7630
Diana Bucknam talks about the “first flashlight” soldiers used in Civil War. It was a saddle candle to help them see in the dark. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Tim and Diana Bucknam, of Perry are the founders of the Civil War Reenactment “Fire on the Genesee” that has been a huge draw for tourism in two decades.

“We have done a lot of research over the years on the Civil War. We have grown up mostly getting the Union’s perspective, but it is always good to hear both sides of the story,” Diana said. “We have done this for about 23 years now. It has taken us many years of research.”

There are many things to consider when you take on certain roles for reenactments. You need to become the part of whoever you portray. You need to understand their side of the story.

IMG_7627
This candle was used when the young ladies were being courted in the Civil War era. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

For this the Bucknam’s have several items on display to show the Confederate side of the war. They have children’s toys, a family Bible from 1850s, a women’s gun, a musket, a saddle candle, and much more.

“We found that by that time period they were using the bayonets more for digging trenches. It was slowly becoming obsolete for fighting,” Tim said. “At that time the boys didn’t want to get that close to the enemy.”

The Confederate Flag has been misused over time according to the Bucknam’s after an intense research.

“The flags were meant to keep the soldiers in line. The one holding the flag would be shot within five minutes, and another soldier would take his place. This was how they kept the soldiers in line,” Tim said. “It is a shame the flags are being used inappropriately now. I looked into when the flags were made, and the purpose of why they were made. They all meant something different in those days.”

IMG_7623
This is an 1850s family Bible that shows what the importance of the Christian Revival was in that time. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Tim portrays a Civil War Confederate Chaplain, since he is a minister in real life this appeals to him.

“The Chaplains in these units were the largest Christian revivals in the country.  They worked with the soldiers in helping to guide them. They were around death all the time,” Tim said. “Most of these kids had never been more than 50 miles from home. Now they were 500 or 600 miles from home and scared to death in battle. The Chaplain’s job was to lead the way, bring them back to the Bible, and help them understand what was going on.”

IMG_7643
This is a beautiful 1911 dress showing the class of the ladies in that period. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Tim added there was a huge need for Confederate reenactors when they started doing this over two decades ago, so they decided to bring awareness to that. Now there are more Confederate reenactors than there are Union ones.

“We were asked to come out for Glory Days and talk about the time Gen. Mills was here. My wife and I started this long ago to talk to people about the Civil War. We wanted to bring a better understanding to the war. We want to get them to study the history of that time period. We just want to educate people to look more into their history.”

IMG_7634
This is a lovely 1840s dress donated by Helen McKay Estate. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Mills Mansion Historical Society members Debbie Schmidt, Mary Lou Martello, Suzanne Dunn, and Carol Mixon worked on the new exhibit that honors period dresses from the early 1800s to the early 1900s.

“We have a wonderful collection of clothes that have been beautifully preserved in a climate control room. We were interested in having a new exhibit out for June. We want to have one on antique tools for July,” Schmidt said. “It was like putting dresses on dolls. We all had so much fun working on this exhibit. It is interesting to see how tiny their waist and feet were in those days.”

Schmidt added the interns had everything very well documented when they were researching the items, so everything was mapped out for visitors on a sheet passed out for Glory Days.  There are 12 dresses on display the month of June that haven’t been seen in about four decades.

There is a Walking Tour of Mount Morris available at the museum as well to pick up and enjoy on a nice sunny day. It has 29 stops that take you from Main Street to Grove Street.

The Mills Mansion is located at 14 Main St. It is open for tours June to November, Fridays to Sundays, from noon to 4 p.m. They can be reached at 585-658-3292.

 

IMG_7621IMG_7632

Mural enriches Glory Days

Inspirations Trail kick-off in Mount Morris with historic wall mural ceremony

IMG_7589
Rochester artist, Shawn Dunwoody and his little helpers, Gavin and Raylee Olsowsky. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

By Jasmine Willis

MOUNT MORRIS — A historic work of art has captured the hearts of an entire community as it encompasses the story of leadership, courage, freedom, family and hope.

The Mount Morris Wall Mural dedication ceremony took place on Glory Days, which honors the life of Francis Bellamy. Bellamy’s words became our nation’s pledge in 1892. The version we know, and honor today was revised in 1942 to include, One Nation Under God.

On June 8 Mount Morris Partners for Progress and the Village of Mount Morris teamed up to celebrate the near completion of the historic artwork.

IMG_7527
William D’Angelo talks about the importance of this mural to the entire community. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

William D’Angelo, Mount Morris Partners for Progress president welcomed everyone to the Eighth Annual Glory Days in honor of Francis Bellamy. D’Angelo thanked everyone who had anything to do with the project from the beginning; especially Shawn Dunwoody, the artist from Rochester who has worked on it for weeks.

“It is our ideas that are up on this wall. We never knew what it was going to be. We thought it might be patriotic. This is art. This is history. This is Mount Morris,” he said. “We can always hold our heads up high to say Mount Morris was the first to get something done in Livingston County.”

Mount Morris Mayor Frank Provo said this was a great project for the whole community to get involved in.

IMG_7525
When the mural is complete the entire wall will pay tribute to the men and women who led the way in Mount Morris. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

“There was a lot of public input. Shawn (Dunwoody) took those ideas and gave us something great. I like what we have. I like where it is going to go. I hope it will be a start for more art to come into the village of Mount Morris,” he said.

Mount Morris Supervisor Chuck DiPasquale has always been proud of his hometown.

“This makes me even more proud of Mount Morris. I love that people stop and ask me where to find the mural. I love that we have something like this being put up in our town,” he said.

IMG_7578
Gavin and Raylee Olsowsky helped paint the stars on the wall with Dunwoody. They were both proud to be part of the project. Their father is from Mount Morris. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

The Livingston County Inspirations Trail will hit all nine towns in the county, but this is the first to incorporate the concept.  The hope is that other towns take the initiative for something similar on their walls.

D’Angelo said the trail is something bigger than Mount Morris. It is something that encompasses the entire county.

“It (Inspirational Trail) is supposed to bring people from the communities and from the outside to stop and take a look at each of the villages. Livingston County is one of the most beautiful regions in all of New York State, if not all of United States. It all begins at the county level,” he said.

IMG_7576
Ross Barnes is a baseball legend of Mount Morris. Many are still passionate about getting him on the hall of fame. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Louise Wadsworth, Livingston County Downtown coordinator talked about the importance of the Inspirations Trail.

“I want to thank Greg O’Connell for saving this wall for us. It was about a year-and-a-half ago I had my first meeting with a group of people from around the county. I really wanted to do an Inspirational Trail, which would bring people from every community through the whole county.  Kathy Link and Linda Gray put their heads together and decided that Mount Morris was going to be the first one,” she said. “I am so proud they picked Shawn Dunwoody to be the artist for this. He is the perfect person to do the first mural. He brought the whole community together. He really put everyone’s ideas on here, and it reflects the entire community. This is the standard for the rest of our towns to come up too.”

IMG_7608
Mary Seymour Howell was instrumental in helping Susan B. Anthony with the Women’s Rights Movement. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Shawn Dunwoody, Rochester artist, said he has been truly honored to work on this project.

“This has been a fantastic journey. I want to say thank you to all of you. This is not about what I am painting. This is about who you are in Mount Morris. I wanted to be that tool to put your voices out here. When I heard this was going to be the first piece on the Inspirations Trail, I knew it had to be something,” he said. “I went in with the intention that this is the first of many other things that will happen throughout the county. It needs to hit hard. It needs to be strong.”

IMG_7615
Gen. William A. Mills founded Mount Morris. His mansion is now a museum for the historical society. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Dunwoody said there were several meetings that took place to get this going. He met at the school several times to talk with the students too.

“I got great information about the history of the town. I got great information about how it all developed into what it is today. I walked away from these meetings with so many ideas and so much spirit. I realized the strength of Mount Morris is developing new families. It has always been open about family and creating change,” he said. “I went with Francis Bellamy’s original pledge, because his vision was that he wanted any country to be able to salute and pledge their country. It is all about extending the world family, which is in the heart of Mount Morris.”

IMG_7613
New Family was the inspiration for the entire mural. The above photo is that of WWII Veteran Charles Peritore. He recently passed away, so this is how his family wanted to honor him. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

Dunwoody wants the community to gather once the project is complete and sign the bottom of the mural. It all belongs to them.

One thing that really made the day touching was the entire Charles Peritore Family showed for the ceremony. Charles Peritore, a WWII Veteran, passed away recently in Mount Morris. His family had him honored by placing his image on top of the mural for everyone to see.

IMG_7603
The entire Charles Peritore Family came to honor him at the wall mural ceremony. PHOTOS BY JASMINE WILLIS

“I get goosebumps every time I look at it,” Charles Peritore Jr. said. “I love coming over to see it, so I can look at him. We found a color photo of dad to give to him, so he could copy the image for the mural. We are very proud of dad, and he was a very humble man. He was very well known in Mount Morris. We brought everyone down to the ceremony to see the mural. We are all very honored to have dad up on the wall.”

The mural should be done within a couple weeks. Future plans include more historic figures, Letchworth falls, Mount Morris Dam, and more. Dunwoody is able to focus on the project by staying in an apartment provided by Greg O’Connell as he works on his masterpiece. The legends that have made their home on the wall include; Gen. William A. Mills, John Wesley Powell, Ross Barnes, Mary Seymour Howell, Mary Jemison, and Francis Bellamy.